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  AVO Analysis and Reservoir Characterization  

  • Seismic Data QC and Preconditioning
    • Creation of AVO and AVA forward models and comparison with gathers to ensure amplitude preservation
    • Application of noise and/or multiple attenuation, scaling, spectrum enhancement and data regularization (if necessary) to facilitate AVO/AVA extraction and inversion
  • AVO Analysis
    • Extracting AVO attributes from seismic gathers
    • Intercept and Gradient, Rp, Rs
  • Well Log QC and Petrophysics/Rock Study
    • Well log calibration, editing and prediction of missing curves (eg: s-sonic) as well as creating attribute curves (eg: LMR, Poisson’s Ratio, Young’s Modulus)
    • Building of rock physics template for various facies
    • Client horizon import and well log to seismic correlation
    • Cross plotting attributes at both log and seismic frequencies to determine reservoir characteristics
  • Post and Pre-Stack Inversion
    • Checking well logs and building relationship between Vp, Vs and density
    • Extracting wavelet(s)
    • Building low frequency models from well logs
    • Post stack and/or prestack simultaneous inversion for Vp, Vs and density, and deriving other elastic properties upon request
    • Post-stack inversion to produce p-impedance (Ip) and s-impedance (Is) volumes
    • Pre-stack simultaneous inversion for Ip, Is and density (if sufficient offsets are available)
    • Derivation of other seismic attributes such as LMR, Poisson’s Ratio and Young’s Modulus
    • Cross plotting inversion attributes to separate reservoir from non-reservoir and produce 3D seismic volumes of cross plot zones
  • Facies Classification
    • Using inversion attributes and empirical relationship from rock physics study
    • Statistical classification with neural network algorithm
    • With client supplied lithology/facies logs, perform Bayesian classification of cross plotted inversion attributes to predict lithology and/or fluid properties
    • Output volumes of most probable facies and individual facies probabilities
  • Fracture Detection
    • Feasibility study (geometry, offset/azimuth distribution, S/N ratio etc)
    • Azimuthal amplitude analysis (AVAZ)
    • Azimuthal velocity analysis (VVAZ) – target oriented with layer stripping
    • AVAZ and VVAZ may be applied in conjunction with 5D trace interpolation
    • Forward modeling of expected azimuthal variations in p-wave velocity (VVAz) and amplitude (AVAz) due to anisotropy and/or fractures (requires full waveform s-wave sonic)